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© J R Stockton, ≥ 2010-02-15

Merlyn Home Page.
Site © J R Stockton 2010+; All Rights Reserved

Site founded Summer 1996.

Major Site Topics

Astronomy and Astronautics, Batch Files in DOS, Computer Usage, Date and Time, Delphi, Internet, JavaScript, and Pascal; see below for index and details.

Within this Home Page

General Copying Citation Links
Topics Changes Index Site
E-Mail Links
Framed Double Framed Less Framed Not Framed


Much of this Web site was written for those who are already active or knowledgeable in the relevant field. I would be pleased to be E-Mailed about any specific points of difficulty for other visitors.

Pages should be generally satisfactory at 640×480 pixels or better, medium font, though at least some of the tables will need scrolling at that resolution. Users of WebTV should upgrade to a proper computer.

Proportional text is at the default size set by your browser; the fixed-pitch may be a step smaller; if not conveniently-sized, adjust your browser.


This begins a test paragraph in sans-serif 16px. The font in this single sentence is set to '16px Times New Roman' which is what I normally use for displaying ordinary text when writing pages. The font in this single sentence should be set to '16px Courier New, smaller' which is what I normally use for displaying code when writing pages. And this represents a normal code fragment. This ends the test paragraph.

I'm not a skilful typist; so, if something doesn't make sense, consider replacing characters by ones nearby on a UK keyboard.

Please do not fetch this page, or any other pages or files of mine, by automated subscription; that wastes my limited resources.

This site is not Merlin (but long ago I had an E-mail address with that in it); it is Merlyn.

© Copyright ©

No public copying or re-publication of this site or of any of its text or any other content is allowed, electronically, on paper, or otherwise, except as in Continuation below.

Occasional private copying for reference is encouraged, if it is not automated. Excess downloading wastes limited resources.

Computer code here is presented for execution by others, without formality. Where a non-trivial amount is used, the source should be acknowledged in comment. It is not guaranteed.

For general information, see Copyright and links there.


Before citing any of these pages either in public print-on-paper or in Internet mass-media, please contact me to discuss bandwidth issues. Other linking is welcome without formality.


I neither accept requests from strangers to link to their sites nor do I make such requests.

I do not host advertisements. Don't ask.

Some links in this site point to elsewhere in the same page or to another page within this site; other links point to sites elsewhere. The presence of a link to a different site should be taken as a suggestion, rather than as an endorsement; sites can change their nature.

On this page, links within the page are italic, and links outside my site are bold; links to other pages on my site are not specially decorated.

Hovering on links on this page, and on most pages on this site that use JavaScript, can indicate (in IE, Firefox, Opera, Safari, Chrome at least) whether the destination of a link is within the current page [.], or relative and so in this Web site [+], or of external Web form [#], or of other form [*]. That requires JavaScript to be enabled.

Short and/or non-alphabetic links, like $ & (g), are for private use in my local master copy.

As others have linked to my pages, an AltaVista or Google citation search will lead to many more-or-less related pages, of differing natures and qualities.

One should not bookmark a framed page; No-Frame it first.

Topic Links Within This Page

Topic Index Sections
Acronyms Astronomy & Astronautics Batch in DOS..Win98/ME
Computer Usage Date and Time Delphi
Directories Europe Internet
JavaScript Miscellaneous Pascal
Sundries VBScript Year 2000
ZIPped Pagesets

Other Sections
Sponsoring My Name Merlyn
This Web Site Page Content Styles
Editing Testing Searching
Translation Continuation
Sending E-Mail to me E-Mail sent by me Automatic List of Links

Significant Recent Structural Alterations

2009-02-11 Directory programs/32-bit created; with CHEKLINX COLS LONGCALC
2009-03-24 js-dobj1.htm split from js-date8.htm
2009-03-29 js-dobj2.htm derived from js-dobj1.htm
2009-04-06 js-dobj1.htm removed
2009-04-23 js-262-5.htm published
2009-05-19 Consequences of the Easter Rules created (to off-load The Date Of Easter Sunday)
2009-10-15 Check Local Links and Anchors
2009-10-22 Alternative JavaScript FAQ Entries released
2009-11-13 Plot Web Site Statistics released
2009-11-16 Scripted Drawing and PNG File released
Continual      Minor Changes

Index to Pages within this Site

  The major sections are alphabetically ordered :-

  1. Acronyms - Mine, and links to wider lists
  2. Astronomy & Astronautics :-
    1. Astronomy / Astronautics 1 - Index, links, Q&A, errors
    2. Astronomy / Astronautics 2 - Solar System
    3. Astronomy / Astronautics 3 - Calculators
    4. Astronomy / Astronautics 4 - Newsgroup, Visual, Errors
    5. Gravity 0 - Index, references, etc.
    6. Gravity 1 - Newton
    7. Gravity 2 - Kepler
    8. Gravity 3 - Orbits, falling, misc
    9. Gravity 4 - Lagrange
    10. Gravity 5 - Hill, horseshoes, tides, Roche, rings
    11. The Geometry of Ellipses
  3. Batch in DOS..Win98/ME :-
    1. MS-DOS Batch Files
    2. MS-DOS Batch Introduction
    3. MS-DOS Batch Programs
  4. Computer Usage :-
    1. See Internet
    2. General - includes Virus
    3. PC Information Links - very miscellaneous; Algorithm index (still small)
    4. Other Computing Languages
    5. ASCII/Hex Table
    6. Demon CDs - partial list, mostly magazine
    7. Directories :-
      1. A Zip-Files directory
      2. A Programs directory, with indexes in text and HTML modes
  5. Date and Time :-
    1. Date and Time Index and Links
    2. General Date and Time :-
      1. Date and Time Calculation - Warnings, Algorithms, Pascal/Delphi Routines
      2. Date Miscellany I : Calendars, Day Counts, Year 0
      3. Date Miscellany II : Day and Year, Month, Calendar Repeats, Possible Calendars
      4. Date and Time Formats - ISO 8601 & others; emend ISO 8601:2000 and emend ISO 8601:2004
      5. Date and Time Scales - MJD, Julian, Gregorian Dates; Date/Time scale zeroes
      6. Leap Years
      7. Calendar Weeks - including ISO 8601
      8. Week Number Calculation
      9. Zeller's Formulae (for Day-of-Week and Easter) :-
      10. Date and Day Count - Conversions
      11. Time Miscellany : HMS, Time, Time Zones, TZ
      12. Leap Seconds
      13. Summer Time - UK, EU, and other - plus UK tables for 1968-2035+
      14. Calendars and Clocks, with Form for conversions between CMJD and YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY-DDD, YYYY'-NN-D (YYYY'-NN is ISO 8601 Week Number), etc.; calendar sheet
      15. Annual Holiday Dates - British Isles, North America
      16. Easter, etc. :-
        1. The Date of Easter Sunday - and more algorithms, with CScript test
        2. Easter Sunday after the Book of Common Prayer
        3. The BCP Easter Sunday Tables
        4. Clavius's Operum Mathematicorum Tomus Quintus (very incomplete)
        5. Easter Algorithms from the Six Canons of Christopher Clavius, etc.
        6. Consequences of the Easter Rules
        7. The Dates of Moveable Feasts & Fasts
      17. The Hebrew Calendar
    3. Critical and Significant Dates for the Year 2000, for computing, and generally; Repeated Risks, Critical Periods. Page may be removed to ease overload - ZIP
      Critical Times Calculator
    4. Tables :-
      1. A condensed Gregorian Calendar for 1970-2030
      2. A more condensed Gregorian Calendar for 1600-2800
      3. Set-Back : Year Match Tables for 1980-2030
      4. Year-Set : Year Type Tables for 1800-2250
      5. A condensed ISO-Week Calendar for 1970-2030
      6. Test Data for ISO Week Numbers
      7. A condensed UK HMRC Tax Week Calendar for 1970-2030
      8. Condensed Easter Dates for 1900-2199
      9. UK Summer Time Dates for 1968-2035+
      10. DayOfMonth/DayOfWeek Frequency Tables, Gregorian and Julian
      11. Some JDN, Gregorian, Julian, English Civil dates
      12. A condensed Hebrew Calendar for 5700-6000
    5. In JavaScript - Date and Time - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, X, etc.; Calendars and Clocks
    6. In Pascal/Delphi - Date and Time, RTE 200
    7. In VBScript - Date and Time : Index, 1, 2
    8. PC Sources and Executables directory (HTML & text indexes) which included, among others :-
      1. MJD_DATE, a general DOS date/time program, using unit DATEPROX;
      2. LONGCALC, a vast-integer DOS RPN calculator program with some long-date code
      3. NOWMINUS, for date and time in Batch
    9. "Y2k" - The Year 2000 :-
      1. The Year 2000 problem, for a Beginner
      2. The Year 2000 problem, more generally : Part 1, Part 2, Part 3
      3. The Year 2001 problem, Year 2001, in Y2k Part 3
      4. The Year 2000 problem, "Time Dilation" in the PC
      5. The Year 2000 problem, References (including newsgroups)
      6. The Year 2000 problem, Testing and Programming
      7. UK Year 2000 Announcement of new newsgroup
      8. My Year 2000 Mini-FAQ for news:uk.tech.y2k; Nano-FAQ
  6. Delphi :-
    1. Index, etc.;
    2. Programming;
    3. Bit/Byte-Shifting;
    4. On "Delphi for Time Travellers"
    5. Pascal Date and Time is relevant, too
    6. Pascal/Delphi Rounding and Truncation
    7. Pascal/Delphi Random
    8. Pascal / Delphi / + Types (BP/TP; Delphi; FPC; TMT)
    9. See ZIPped pageset snapshots
    Where non-GUI and feasible, my programs are for both D3 "DCC32 -cc" and BP7.
    Much of the other Pascal pages applies also to Delphi;
  7. Directories :-
    1. Old Pascal FAQs (now ZIP)
    2. Programs - mine, with indexes in text and HTML, and sub-directory 32-bit EXEs
    3. Graphics
    4. Pascal RTE 200 Files
    5. Zip-Files - a few utilities
    6. Pascal Games
  8. Europe :-
    1. General - the Continent, the EU, the euro currency
    2. Guest 0 - Territories
    3. Summer Time - UK, EU, and elsewhere
  9. Failed Outgoing E-Mail - bad addresses, etc. : FailMail
  10. Internet :-
    1. General - including General Links, Abuse of the Net, Copyright
    2. UK Net Connection
    3. About E-Mail - personal views
    4. News - personal views :-
      1. About NewsGroups
      2. How to Write News
      3. Usenet Abbreviations and Acronyms
    5. Web - personal views :-
      1. Reading Web Pages
      2. Writing Web Pages, Content
      3. Writing Web Pages, Tools
      4. HTML colours
    6. Check Local Links and Anchors
    7. Plot Web Site Statistics
    8. Scripted Drawing and PNG File
    9. See ZIPped pageset snapshots
  11. JavaScript (not Java) :-
    1. Index - site introduction, Tools, Batch, Newsgroups, Links
    2. Overview
    3. General
    4. Include Files - Usage, Contents
    5. Code in Double-Bordered Boxes
    6. Demos
    7. Quick Trials
    8. Debugging
    9. Tests
    10. Feature Detection
    11. RegExps & Validation
    12. Maths - with numeric I/O
    13. Sorting and Order
    14. Random - Usage; Shuffle, Deal, Draw
    15. Rounding 0 - introducing :-
    16. Uses of Operators
    17. Date and Time Introduction - indexing :-
    18. Calendars and Clocks
    19. Analogue and Digital Clocks
    20. Alarm
    21. Doubles Tournament - P, T
    22. Cartography
    23. Miscellaneous - 0, 1
    24. Server Side Includes
    25. On Standard ECMA-262 5th Edition
      (was: On Final Draft ECMA-262 5th Edition, April 2009)
    26. Check Local Links and Anchors
    27. Plot Web Site Statistics
    28. Scripted Drawing and PNG File
    29. Alternative JavaScript FAQ Entries
    30. See ZIPped pageset snapshots
  12. Miscellaneous Information :-
    1. Misuse of this Site
  13. Pascal - (Largely Borland/Turbo Pascal; Borland called itself Inprise for a while) :-
    1. The current Pascal Mini-FAQ for news:comp.lang.pascal.borland - now by Robert AH Prins; my oldpfaqs/ is a directory containing ZIPped earlier versions and a TV FAQ
    2. My personal views :-
      1. General Pascal - Index, with Coursework Questions
      2. Pascal Links :-
        • 1 - Pascal & asm FAQ Links, Non-Borland Pascal Compilers, Turbo/Borland Pascal & TV(P) Bug Lists, Pascal Newsgroups
        • 2 - Borland, Bookmarks, Tutorials, Books, My Programs, Miscellaneous
      3. Borland/Turbo Pascal Procurement
      4. Borland/Turbo Pascal Normal Usage
      5. Borland/Turbo Pascal Extensions (with Crt unit avoidance)
      6. Pascal Mathematics (with Trigonometry)
      7. Pascal Floating-Point
      8. Pascal/Delphi Rounding and Truncation
      9. Pascal / DELPHI / + Types (BP/TP; Delphi; FPC; TMT)
      10. Reserved Words and Directives (BP/TP/D3)
      11. Pascal Optimisation - index, P1, P2; and Div+Mod (Michael Salem)
      12. Pascal Random function - with general considerations
      13. Pascal Date and Time
      14. Pascal Wait and Delay
      15. Date/Delay related material (Robert Rozee)
      16. BP7/TP7 Start-Up Runtime Error 200 (+500 MHz?)
      17. See also Delphi Introduction and TMT Pascal
    3. Directories :-
      1. Pascal RTE 200 Files, including copies of TP/BP upgrades/fixes, which may not remain Do not publish links to this directory or its contents; take a copy of the files instead
      2. "My PC Programs" - my *.PAS and some *.EXE (those with EXE also have ZIP) - with prime Text Index, secondary HTML Index, and Bugs files; and a little from other sources. Programs with *.EXE files are utilities; those with only *.PAS are examples, or are specifically for Borland/Turbo-Pascal or Borland Delphi programmers. There are some 32-bit EXEs.
    4. See ZIPped pageset snapshots
  14. Sundries :-
    1. Humour
    2. Problems
    3. Quotations
    4. For Frames : Table of Contents, Micro-Index
  15. Time - See Date and Time
  16. VBScript :-
    1. General and Maths
    2. Date and Time Index
    3. Date and Time 1
    4. Date and Time 2
  17. ZIPped Pageset Snapshots
    These snapshots are recent but generally not current; graphics are included only where stated; unZIP in an empty directory :-
    1. Astro/Gravity/+ information pages, (172kB+, taken on or after 2010-02-18)
    2. HTML/javascript web-authoring pages, (562kB+, taken on or after 2010-02-19)
    3. Date/Time information pages, (750kB+, taken on or after 2010-02-16)
    4. Pascal/Delphi/Batch programming pages, (420kB+, taken on or after 2010-02-17)
    5. Zeller material, text & graphics, (604kB+, taken on or after 2009-11-19)
    RSVP if I have left any HTML files out of a ZIP.

About These Pages


Anyone, acting corporately or privately, who finds information on this Web site useful enough to deserve recompense is invited to contribute support to the work of my Godson‡and his family for the Third World, directly or through local organisations.

‡ Author of Twenty Countries, Four Continents, and Three Wedding Rings (448pp., ISBN-13: 978-1847481931, May 2008), and at Englisch Institut.

My Name

In order to reduce mistaken hits by simple-minded searchers (there is a person of my name from UT who seems to have been talented at the public competitive insertion of spherical objects into nominally wicker receptacles), I have largely removed my first name from these pages; it is a common anagram of "hJno".

I am not a Medic, and have never been either a Parliamentary Candidate or a Councillor.


Merlyn 3 is my current main Internet machine, used from 2006-10-19.

It is a P4D/3GHz desktop PC now with Windows XP pro sp3, Microsoft Office 2003, IE 8, Firefox 3, Opera 10, Safari 4, Chrome 3, Delphi 2006, Turnpike 6.05, etc.

Merlyn 2 died on 2006-10-14; it was a PII/300 PC with Windows 98, MSIE 4, Turnpike 4, etc., etc., used from Summer 1998.

I also sometimes run what remains of old Merlyn 1, which is a Tandon PacII 486/33 PC with MS-DOS 6.20, BP7, etc.; and I also have an Amstrad PPC640.

Merlyn connects to the Internet via Demon dial-up once or twice a day, usually, for E-Mail and Usenet News; but rarely in BT prime time.

I also have an Acer laptop with similar software, some in different, maybe later, versions, but with OpenOffice 3.

2007-01-18 : Broadband was installed today, and works well for Web and FTP; but, for the moment at least, dial-up is still used for most Mail and News.

Please note that BT charges for connection time; so do not E-Mail me large, useless, unexpected items. Do not E-Mail duplicates of News articles. Do not send duplicate E-Mails; physics.org is a permanent redirecting address. True Net Abusers may get reported.

This Web Site
Hosting Service

This Web site is hosted at Demon Internet Limited; access, unlike normal update, does not depend on my personal systems.

Pages may be cached, either at Demon or by your browser; reload as appropriate.

Demon's Web hosting was migrated around 2007 June 14-17. The nominal bandwidth limit was reduced from 60 MB per day to a mere 1 GB per month. It is now 2.5 GB per month. I have introduced a robots.txt file, in the expectation of controlling total access; it seemed effective. Currently it is not needed.

Page Content

Much of this site was originally written with IE4. Almost all will now have been adequately reviewed in Firefox 3.0, and much in IE7 or IE8, Opera, Safari, and/or Chrome. My default browser is currently Firefox.

The date at the top of each page should be the UK civil date of the last non-trivial change.

Site navigation does not need scripts to be enabled. Almost no page absolutely requires script to run; but pages about JavaScript need it, pages about VBScript need it and IE, forms need it, and about half of the other pages benefit to some extent by it.

In pages with JavaScript, common functions are generally defined in include files; see JavaScript Include Files.

My browser settings are default, more or less. My LOCAL homepage can set itself to 640 px wide (screen is 1024 px), and by using it I keep my page-design window at that width. That gives a reasonable number of words of Times New Roman per line. The code-viewing boxes are sized to fill that, and luckily give me 70 characters per line. If PRE as sized by CSS always gives a similar number of characters within the page width, I shall be happy. Footer boxes now approximately fit my usual page width.

I then hope that other systems will give a reasonable rendition with reasonable settings, using a "normal-size" screen but not necessarily a full-screen window.


This site uses CSS styling. For a different appearance, turn CSS off in your browser; or save the page locally without my CSS file(s). To retain styling, save also styles-a.css.

The main font face and size that you see are the defaults set in your browser.

I have been using mainly MSIE 4, 6 and 7, with default fonts Medium size, Times New Roman and Courier New; and Firefox, with defaults Times New Roman 16, Courier New 14. In IE 6, the fixed-pitch font was broader, which presented minor problems before adjustment by CSS.

At present, except possibly by way of these links (which you are not invited to select), there are relatively few graphics and no sounds here; and frames are optional.


I mainly use the general editor PFE, and other tools such as MiniTrue. Moving to Windows XP has caused some changes.


The HTML is routinely tested with a copy of Tidy (downloaded; from W3 or SourceForge); and local links and anchors are tested with my program cheklinx.

The pages are intermittently checked with Web validators such as those at w3.org, WebLint, and as far as I can are made to pass; and possibly with WebXACT, Cynthia and NetMechanic, and the worst faults removed; and maybe with WDG HTML Validator - Validate Me.

Most pages are now very largely compatible with HTML 4.01 Strict (excepting target).


My HTML pages, redirectors apart, should all have "Merlyn Home Page" near the top and "near London" near the bottom. Therefore, asking a search engine for pages containing one or both of those, plus topic-selecting words, should find any relevant Web pages of mine, without finding specific partial quotes. It may be necessary to repeat the search with omitted results included.


To see Web pages in something resembling another language, try Google Translate or Babel Fish or the link near the top of this page.


It has been suggested that some parts of this Web site may be useful. In the event of the unexpected demise of myself, my PC, my connection, or my ISP, these pages will either vanish or cease to change; I grant permission for the users of each set of these pages then to select one of their number to acquire, maintain, and update the set, for as long as the situation continues, provided that the head and foot of each page are suitably altered.

Sending E-Mail to me

E-Mail services are much affected by malware and spam. Therefore, the simple old jrs@merlyn address may NOT work, and E-Mail to other addresses at Merlyn may also not be received. Other privately-notified addresses should work.

DO NOT send me duplicates, overquotes, bottom-quotes, or attachments;
or HTML / multipart / binary / WP / DOC formats,
or unreasonably large messages,
unless given explicit permission to do so.

Eschew bloating legalese.

Plain-Text E-Mail Formatting
Configuring MSOE Correctly for Plain-Text E-Mail
Coursework Questions
Link Requests

E-Mail must have a suitable Subject line in plain ISO-7 characters,
and must be clearly distinguishable from spam.

E-Mail should now be sent, as a single plain text copy without attachments, to
 That EMail address is in graphics; use the reverse of net dot mail dash office at Stockton dot JR.
rather than to web at merlyn.
(at physics.org system now use J.R.Stockton)
If that fails, try
 That EMail address is in graphics; use the reverse of uk dot co dot demon dot merlyn at webmaster .

Use of the addresses spam@... jrs@... reply@... has been discontinued.
Addresses ending in four digits are short-term, changing weekly.


I do not accept E-Mail using Big5 or GB2312; any so marked is unlikely to be read.

E-Mail sent by me

E-Mail and News from Merlyn is Dated when it is queued for output; my clock is unlikely to be much in error. When I connect to the Net and upload, my ISP adds its own time-stamps. I do have other accounts.

Outbound E-Mail reported as undeliverable is sometimes referenced, with the given reason, in page FailMail.

© Dr J R Stockton, near London, UK.
(I am not a Medic)
All Rights Reserved.